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prove me wrong.... coronavirus is not airborne
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real-human



Joined: 02 Jul 2011
Posts: 12549
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PostPosted: Sun Nov 01, 2020 4:26 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

off topic but important

some of the TB vacine studies are now coming in.


https://www.newsgram.com/bcg-vaccine-can-help-managing-covid-elderly-icmr/


BCG Vaccine Can Help Managing COVID in Elderly: ICMR. Read more at: https://www.newsgram.com/bcg-vaccine-can-help-managing-covid-elderly-icmr/


Quote:
The Bacille Calmette-Guerin or BCG vaccine, originally made against tuberculosis, may help in the management of COVID-19, especially in the elderly, says a study by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR). The BCG vaccination is known to induce innate immune memory, which confers protection against several infections, the study uploaded as a preprint at medRxiv, reported. Follow NewsGram on Twitter to stay updated about the World news. “We investigated the impact of BCG vaccination on the frequencies of T cell, B cell, monocyte and dendritic cell subsets,” the study researchers from ICMR wrote. “We also investigated total antibody levels in a group of healthy elderly individuals (age 60-80 years) at one-month post-vaccination as part of our clinical study to examine the effect of BCG on COVID-19,” they added.

The results showed that BCG vaccination induces enhanced innate and adaptive immunity in elderly individuals which may prove beneficial against the coronavirus. BCG vaccine has a general stimulating effect on the immune system and is, therefore, effective against COVID-19. Unsplash “Finally, BCG vaccination resulted in elevated levels of all antibody isotypes,” the researchers wrote.

“BCG vaccination was associated with enhanced innate and adaptive memory cell subsets, as well as total antibody levels in elderly individuals,” they concluded. Earlier in October, as part of a large-scale global trial, scientists in Britain launched a study to test if the widely-used BCG vaccine could help protect people against COVID-19.

Industry A study published in the journal ‘Cell Reports Medicine’, also revealed that the BCG vaccine has a general stimulating effect on the immune system and is, therefore, effective against COVID-19. (IANS). Read more at: https://www.newsgram.com/bcg-vaccine-can-help-managing-covid-elderly-icmr/

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real-human



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PostPosted: Tue Nov 10, 2020 10:14 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

https://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.0008831


Modeling the stability of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on skin, currency, and clothing


Quote:
Abstract
A new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in the winter of 2019 in Wuhan, China, and rapidly spread around the world. The extent and efficiency of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is far greater than previous coronaviruses that emerged in the 21st Century. Here, we modeled stability of SARS-CoV-2 on skin, paper currency, and clothing to determine if these surfaces may factor in the fomite transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2. Skin, currency, and clothing samples were exposed to SARS-CoV-2 under laboratory conditions and incubated at three different temperatures (4°C± 2°C, 22°C± 2°C, and 37°C ± 2°C). We evaluated stability at 0 hours (h), 4 h, 8 h, 24 h, 72 h, 96 h, 7 days, and 14 days post-exposure. SARS-CoV-2 was stable on skin through the duration of the experiment at 4°C (14 days). Virus remained stable on skin for at least 96 h at 22°C and for at least 8h at 37°C. There were minimal differences between the tested currency samples. The virus remained stable on the $1 U.S.A. Bank Note for at least 96 h at 4°C while we did not detect viable virus on the $20 U.S.A. Bank Note samples beyond 72 h. The virus remained stable on both Bank Notes for at least 8 h at 22°C and 4 h at 37°C. Clothing samples were similar in stability to the currency. Viable virus remained for at least 96 h at 4°C and at least 4 h at 22°C. We did not detect viable virus on clothing samples at 37°C after initial exposure. This study confirms the inverse relationship between virus stability and temperature. Furthermore, virus stability on skin demonstrates the need for continued hand hygiene practices to minimize fomite transmission both in the general population as well as in workplaces where close contact is common.

Author summary
A new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in the winter of 2019 in Wuhan, China, and rapidly spread around the world. It is still unclear why and how this particular coronavirus has spread with greater efficiency around the world than previous emerging coronaviruses. It is also unclear what potential role surfaces and direct contact have with virus transmission. We attempted to determine if SARS-CoV-2 remained infectious on a series of tested surfaces for longer periods compared with other coronaviruses. Our studies indicate that when we inoculate SARS-CoV-2 on skin, the virus can remain infectious for up for 96 hours at room temperature. Clothing and bank notes where not as hospitable for virus stability as skin across all three tested temperatures. Refrigerated conditions also enhance stability of SARS-CoV-2 across all tested surfaces. These studies demonstrate the continued need for strict public health measures to combat the ongoing pandemic particularly during cold weather months.

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mac



Joined: 07 Mar 1999
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PostPosted: Wed Nov 11, 2020 10:48 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

From the NYT:

Quote:
Restaurants, gyms and other crowded indoor venues accounted for 80 percent of new infections in the U.S. from March to May.
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real-human



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PostPosted: Thu Nov 12, 2020 5:17 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

geee lookie what I found... some science... again I have noted I believe they are testing the wrong thing, the human touches their face 23 times an hour, so wearing a mask is a barrier to you touching your mucous areas 12 times an hour when in a high risk area.

here was the science behind masks pre-covid

https://www.bmj.com/content/369/bmj.m1422?utm_content=americas&utm_campaign=usage&utm_medium=cpc&utm_source=trendmd


Covid-19: What is the evidence for cloth masks?


Quote:
A preprint of a rapid systematic review has assessed the current evidence on respiratory illnesses and the use of face masks (mainly surgical paper masks) in community settings.4 The paper, yet to be peer reviewed, included 31 studies, of which 12 were randomised controlled trials. The researchers reported that “wearing facemasks can be very slightly protective against primary infection from casual community contact, and modestly protective against household infections when both infected and uninfected members wear facemasks.” However, they said that many of the studies “suffered from poor compliance and controls.”

They concluded, “The evidence is not sufficiently strong to support widespread use of facemasks as a protective measure against covid-19. However, there is enough evidence to support the use of facemasks for short periods of time by particularly vulnerable individuals when in transient higher risk situations.”

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GURGLETROUSERS



Joined: 30 Dec 2009
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PostPosted: Fri Nov 13, 2020 4:17 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Keep the research coming Dean.

Some of us have strong views. Put it down to age (83 now) and being pig headed, But I stick with the initial views of Chief Medical Officers (U.K. and WHO) who claimed that face masks do little to protect against this virus. ((Showering droplets the exception when in very close contact.)

I do not wear a mask except for the sole exception of weekly supermarket shopping, where it is mandatory to do so. (Go at 6.30 Monday mornings - only a few there.) The rest of my time is exclusively outdoors, (or alone in the house in the evening), so with proper distancing from all others, a mask is an irrelevance. Indeed, if wearing one for any length of time I would see it as a breeding ground for germs when soaked in condensation. (Daft to risk it.)

We are in a second lockdown but we are allowed to exercise for as long as we like, every day. I do precisely that. (Windsurfing, kayaking, mountain biking, road biking, all with aid of car to get there instead of just from house., as last time.)

I feel sorry for the majority who are not retired and have to go to workk. They are at high risk and the infection rate is now beyond a joke. Thank God we will have vaccines soon. The Oxford one is to publish its findings next week, and indications are that it has passed all tests, so we will now have at least two certainties. I will accept either.
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real-human



Joined: 02 Jul 2011
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PostPosted: Mon Nov 23, 2020 3:14 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

makes sense when outside where the sunlight kills the virus on surfaces and in general statistically less common surfaces to touch. Not many light switches or elevator buttons on a walking path.

https://www.acpjournals.org/doi/10.7326/M20-6817  



Effectiveness of Adding a Mask Recommendation to Other Public Health Measures to Prevent SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Danish Mask Wearers





Quote:
Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions

• An individually randomized controlled trial in Denmark from April to May 2020 (n=4,862) found that among participants spending at least 3 hours outside of home per day without occupational mask use and already practicing physical distancing, the intervention to recommend wearing a surgical mask when outside of home did not significantly reduce SARS-CoV-2 infection among mask wearers (OR = 0.82, 95% CI 0.54-1.23). Infection occurred in 42 participants recommended to wear masks (1.8%), compared to 53 participants in the control arm (2.1%). Accounting for loss to follow-up (19%) and mask use non-adherence (7%) yielded similar results.
• Key study limitations include 46% who reported adherence to wearing the mask as recommended and 47% who reported wearing the mask predominantly as recommended. The authors note that study findings are in the context of implementation of other public health measures, including social distancing, limiting contacts, and restaurant closures – including part of the trial occurring during lockdown. [EDITORIAL NOTE: This trial evaluated only the outcome of infections among people instructed to wear a mask, and not the effect of wearing masks on decreasing transmission to other people.]

Bundgaard et al. (Nov 18, 2020). Effectiveness of Adding a Mask Recommendation to Other Public Health Measures to Prevent SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Danish Mask Wearers. Annals of Internal Medicine. https://doi.org/10.7326/M20-6817  

Quote:
• A randomized controlled trial in Denmark did not demonstrate effectiveness of adding a mask recommendation to other public health measures in reducing SARS-CoV-2 infection among participants instructed to wear masks (OR = 0.82, 95% CI 0.54-1.23), and did not investigate the broader community benefits from mask wearing

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real-human



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PostPosted: Mon Nov 23, 2020 9:52 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

https://www.cochranelibrary.com/cdsr/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD006207.pub5/full


Physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses


Quote:
• A meta-analysis with 67 pre-COVID-19 trials reported no significant reduction in respiratory viral infection with the use of medical/surgical masks during influenza season (9 trials; 3507 participants), and no clear differences between the use of medical/surgical masks versus N95/P2 respirators in healthcare workers (5 trials; 8407 participants). Hand hygiene was associated with an 11% relative reduction of respiratory illness (7 trials; 44,129 participants) but with low-certainty evidence and high heterogeneity.

Jefferson et al. (Nov 20, 2020). Physical Interventions to Interrupt or Reduce the Spread of Respiratory Viruses. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD006207.pub5

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GURGLETROUSERS



Joined: 30 Dec 2009
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PostPosted: Tue Nov 24, 2020 4:26 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Yes, I'd read the press reports of the Danish mask study (not the full research) claiming no significant statistical evidence for face masks outside, with social distancing being the main safety factor. I didn't read the actual report since that seemed so obvious a conclusion.

Over here (U.K.) we are facing a battle between the scientists and the politicians. The press portray it as a question of just who is ruling our lives and forcing rules upon us - the scientists (who nobody voted for) or the politicians, through Parliament? Both sides have proven to be manipulative, with dodgy data being used (the latest lockdown now admitted to have been imposed based on worst case death figures from the scientists when they knew those figures were out of date) to force the issue.

I, and most others I know, have formulated our own opinions as to what we feel safe in doing, and what we must avoid doing. Until we can all be vaccinated before next Spring (Oxford Vaccine now confirmed as over 90% effective on all counts, AND easy to distribute because it doesn't require being held at low temperature) we will keep up with our present actions, in accordance with proven findings, and with a dollop of common sense. It's worked for us so far, as a group of us were discussing a few days back after a high wind session. (Suitably keeping our distance naturally, in case some twerp had it and wasn't letting on Wink )

Keep safe Dean.
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real-human



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PostPosted: Tue Nov 24, 2020 11:45 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

the keeping safe is worrisome. Still my biggest worry is my dog. She just loves everyone and everyone in general love her. I think it was the Danish mink findings are what really have me worried with pets. I have purchased the zoolo spray from australia hand and object spray, the one united airlines uses on planes for contact mitigation. And us the hand one several times a day even though it claims effective upto 24 hours. Moderna rna one also does not need nonsensical temperatures is meets the Pfizer 94ish effective. But I doubt will be at the usd$3-4 dollar reported for the astraZeneca (oxford) one.

Here a re some more not peer reviewed on contact. Horrible that they did not include the kiss hug greeting chain of events yet.

Keep up the safety precautions, we want to debate you for many more years my friend.

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.est.0c05651  
 



A Systematic Review of Surface Contamination, Stability, and Disinfection Data on SARS-CoV-2 (Through July 10, 2020)  


 
Quote:

We conducted a systematic review of hygiene intervention effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2, including developing inclusion criteria, conducting the search, selecting articles for inclusion, and summarizing included articles. Overall, 96 268 articles were screened and 78 articles met inclusion criteria with outcomes in surface contamination, stability, and disinfection. Surface contamination was assessed on 3343 surfaces using presence/absence methods. Laboratories had the highest percent positive surfaces (21%, n = 83), followed by patient-room healthcare facility surfaces (17%, n = 1170), non-COVID-patient-room healthcare facility surfaces (12%, n = 1429), and household surfaces (3%, n = 161). Surface stability was assessed using infectivity, SARS-CoV-2 survived on stainless steel, plastic, and nitrile for half-life 2.3–17.9 h. Half-life decreased with temperature and humidity increases, and was unvaried by surface type. Ten surface disinfection tests with SARS-CoV-2, and 15 tests with surrogates, indicated sunlight, ultraviolet light, ethanol, hydrogen peroxide, and hypochlorite attain 99.9% reduction. Overall there was (1) an inability to align SARS-CoV-2 contaminated surfaces with survivability data and effective surface disinfection methods for these surfaces; (2) a knowledge gap on fomite contribution to SARS-COV-2 transmission; (3) a need for testing method standardization to ensure data comparability; and (4) a need for research on hygiene interventions besides surfaces, particularly handwashing, to continue developing recommendations for interrupting SARS-CoV-2 transmission.


https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.11.20.20220749v1  


Community Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 by Fomites: Risks and Risk Reduction Strategies  


 
Quote:
SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, is perceived to be primarily transmitted via person-to-person contact, through droplets produced while talking, coughing, and sneezing. Transmission may also occur through other routes, including contaminated surfaces; nevertheless, the role that surfaces have on the spread of the disease remains contested. Here we use the Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment framework to examine the risks of community transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through contaminated surfaces and to evaluate the effectiveness of hand and surface disinfection as potential interventions. The risks posed by contacting surfaces in communities are low (average of the median risks 1.6x10-4 - 5.6x10-9) for community infection prevalence rates ranging from 0.2-5%. Hand disinfection substantially reduces relative risks of transmission independently of the disease's prevalence and the frequency of contact, even with low (25% of people) or moderate (50% of people) compliance. In contrast, the effectiveness of surface disinfection is highly dependent on the prevalence and the frequency of contacts. The work supports the current perception that contaminated surfaces are not a primary mode of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and affirms the benefits of making hand disinfectants widely available.

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real-human



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PostPosted: Tue Dec 01, 2020 4:21 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

off topic

https://www.precisionvaccinations.com/can-mmr-vaccination-enhance-covid-19-immunity


Can MMR Vaccination Enhance COVID-19 Immunity?


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Measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccines are generally safe with few side effects
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GEORGIA (Precision Vaccinations)
A new study published in the journal of the American Society for Microbiology indicates that the mumps IgG titers, or levels of IgG antibody, are inversely correlated with severity in recovered COVID-19 patients previously vaccinated with the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine.

Published on November 20, 2020, the researchers in this study found a significant inverse correlation (rs = -0.71, P < 0.001) between mumps titers and COVID-19 severity within the MMR II sub-group.

Within the MMR II group, mumps titers of 134 to 300 AU/ml (n=Cool were only found in those who were functionally immune or asymptomatic.

And those study participants with mild COVID-19 symptoms had mumps titers below 134 AU/ml (n=17). All with moderate symptoms had mumps titers below 75 AU/ml (n=11). All who had been hospitalized and required oxygen had mumps titers below 32 AU/ml (n=5). Titers were measured by Quest Diagnostics using their standard diagnostic protocol.

However, there were no significant correlations between mumps titers and disease severity in the comparison group, between mumps titers and age in the MMR II group, or between severity and measles or rubella titers in either group.

"We found a statistically significant inverse correlation between mumps titer levels and COVID-19 severity in people under age 42 who have had MMR II vaccinations," stated the lead study author Jeffrey E. Gold, president of World Organization, in Watkinsville, Georgia, in a press release.

"This may explain why children have a much lower COVID-19 case rate than adults, as well as a much lower death rate.”

The paper said that while the associations that we have observed between MMR II and COVID-19 do not prove causation, the significant associations lend further support to the theory that the MMR II vaccine may provide long-term, cross-protective immunity against COVID-19.

The majority of children in the USA get their first MMR vaccination around 12 to 15 months of age and a second one from 4 to 6 years of age.

"This is the first immunological study to evaluate the relationship between the MMR II vaccine and COVID-19. The statistically significant inverse correlation between mumps titers and COVID-19 indicates that there is a relationship involved that warrants further investigation," added co-author David J. Hurley, Ph.D., professor, and molecular microbiologist at the University of Georgia.



"The MMR II vaccine is considered a safe vaccine with very few side effects. If it has the ultimate benefit of preventing infection from COVID-19, preventing the spread of COVID-19, reducing the severity of it, or a combination of any or all of those, it is a very high reward low-risk ratio intervention. Maximum seropositivity is achieved through two vaccinations at least 28 days apart.”

Suggestions for further research include randomized controlled clinical trials of MMR II, investigations of anti-mumps antibodies to assess potential effects against SARS-CoV-2, the utilization of larger sample size, and employing more-predictive types of analysis of data to establish a causal link between various levels of immunity offered by MMR II and severity of COVID-19 symptoms.

“Based on our study, it would be prudent to vaccinate those over 40 regardless of whether or not they already have high serum MMR titers,” concluded Dr. Hurley.

A similar study published in The American Journal of Medicine on October 23, 2020, suggested 'the MMR vaccine may protect against COVID-19, including high-risk individuals, such as the elderly with comorbidities, and health care workers and first responders with COVID-19 patients, especially individuals living in long-term care facilities and the related institutional staff.'

Previously, a worldwide study was announced on September 3, 2020, co-led by Washington University, University College London, and the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa, plans to determine the MMR's vaccine efficacy against COVID-19. This phase 3 study aims to enroll 30,000 healthcare workers. In some countries where the MMR vaccine isn’t widely given to children, these healthcare workers may be receiving the vaccine for the first time.

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